WPMC2014 offers and exciting range of tutorials. One tutorial is included in the registration price and can be selected in the registration process. An additional tutorial may also purchased from the registration site.

Tutorial Program:

Room

Melbourne 1

Melbourne 2

Melbourne 3+4

Sunday 7 September

08:00 - 17:00

Registration (Foyer)

09:00 - 10:30

T1: NanoWSN Tutorial

T2: Cloud Tutorial

T3: M2M Tutorial

10:30 - 11:00

Coffee Break

11:00 - 12:30

T1: NanoWSN Tutorial

T2: Cloud Tutorial

T3: M2M Tutorial

12:30 - 14:00

Lunch Break (no catering)

14:00 - 15:30

T4: VANET Tutorial

T5: Stream Tutorial

T6: SON Tutorial

15:30 - 16:00

Coffee Break

16:00 - 17:30

T4: VANET Tutorial

T5: Stream Tutorial

T6: SON Tutorial

 

T3: M2M Tutorial

Title

Machine-to-Machine Technologies & Markets –Shift of Industries

 

Presenter

Prof. Mischa Dohler
Head, Centre for Telecom Research
Chair Professor, King's College London
Fellow & Distinguished Lecturer, IEEE
Board of Directors, Worldsensing
Editor-in-Chief, ETT
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Abstract

The unprecedented communication paradigm of machine-to-machine (M2M), facilitating 24/7 ultra-reliable connectivity between a prior unseen number of automated devices, is currently gripping both industrial as well as academic communities. The aim of this tutorial is to provide a detailed academic, technical and industrial insight into latest key aspects of wireless M2M networks.

 

I will provide an in-depth introduction to the particularities of M2M systems, and then dwell in great depths on the capillary and cellular embodiments of M2M. The focus of capillary M2M will be a short review on the problems of IEEE 802.15.4-like technologies. Then, we will discuss low power Wifi (IEEE 802.11ah) and positioned in the eco-system of capillary M2M. For the first time, low power wide area (LPWA) systems will be discussed which is an emerging technology providing IoT connectivity. Finally, cellular M2M will be dealt with where I will discuss latest activities, status and trends in leading M2M standardization bodies with technical focus on oneM2M, ETSI M2M and 3GPP LTE-M; furthermore, we will discuss analytical and simulation works quantifying the performance and impact of M2M in legacy cellular networks.

 

In addition, an M2M market and business perspective will be also provided in this tutorial. Understanding the potential of Big Data, the market trends and the business models applicable to M2M are fundamental to inspire academia and industry to devise new technologies and put into market viable and flexible M2M solutions.

 

Along the entire tutorial, challenges and open issues will be identified, thus making the material presented in this tutorial useful for industry and inspiring for researchers and academics alike.

 

Biography

Mischa Dohler is full Professor in Wireless Communications at King's College London, Head of the Centre for Telecommunications Research, co-founder and member of the Board of Directors of the smart city pioneer Worldsensing, Fellow and Distinguished Lecturer of the IEEE, and Editor-in-Chief of the Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies.

He is a frequent keynote, panel and tutorial speaker. He has contributed to numerous wireless broadband and IoT/M2M standards, holds a dozen patents, chaired numerous conferences, and published more than 160 refereed transactions, conference papers and books. He has a citation h-index of 34.

He acts as policy, technology and entrepreneurship adviser, examples being Richard Branson's Carbon War Room, the House of Lords UK, the EPSRC ICT Strategy Advisory Team, the European Commission, ISO Smart City working group, and various start-ups.

He is also an entrepreneur, angel investor, passionate pianist and fluent in 6 languages. He has talked at TEDx. He had coverage by national and international TV & radio; and his contributions have featured in the Wall Street Journal and BBC News.

 


T6: SON Tutorial

Title

New Cellular Network Topologies: Small Cells to HetNets and the need for Self Organizing Networks

 


Presenter

A/Prof. Mark C. Reed SMIEEE
University of New South Wales (UNSW)
Australian National University (ANU)
PO Box 7916
Canberra ACT 2610, Australia
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Abstract

Decreasing average revenues per bit are becoming an alarming concern for operators worldwide, very recently. With the advent of next generations e.g. LTE, most operators will have to simultaneously manage four different technologies GSM, UMTS, LTE and Wi-Fi. In addition industry and academic research community has recognised that small cell technology can provide significant data offload while using the same frequencies (reuse=1).  Heterogeneous wireless cellular networks (HetNets) are an evolution of this concept and utilize multiple tiers of cells to serve users. The resultant increase in operational complexity from both multiple standards and HetNets will adversely affect the commercial viability of future cellular systems. To overcome these challenges, SON has emerged as paradigm that can reduce costs while at the same time yield optimal performance which otherwise can be virtually impossible with manual configuration.

 

Given this motivation, in this tutorial we will first introduce Small Cells and HetNets before discussing SON, by looking at its emergence, prevalent definitions, use cases in cellular systems, and characteristics. We will then introduce key concepts of HetNets with emphasis on the air interface. We will also analyse what has been achieved in SON to date, including latest standardization activities and industrial progress. This will be followed by a technical discussion on selected SON solutions that can be exploited for HetNets, with the objective to provide deeper understanding of design process of SON and its potential gains.

 

Biography

Mark Reed is an Associate Professor at the University of New South Wales, Canberra and an Adjunct Assoc. Prof. at the Australian National University.  He leads a team on the topic of small cell wireless cellular, specifically focused on heterogeneous wireless networks and Self Organizing Networks.  The team is currently working on developing a framework to determine the performance limits of a heterogeneous wireless network from both the radio and network limitations.  Mark pioneered the area of iterative (turbo) detection techniques and is a leading researcher in the field with more than 70 publications and eight patents.   Mark has a mix of real-world industrial experience as well as research experience where he continues to put his techniques into practice.  Recently Mark was the team leader that realized a real-time world-first WCDMA Femtocell modem containing advanced receiver techniques that significantly improved the receiver throughput performance. Mark is a co-editor of a special IEEE Journal on Selected Areas on Femtocells (Published in Feb. 2012) and is actively involved in industrial commercialization of small cell wireless technology.

 


T2 Cloud Tutorial

Title

Streaming Big Data Processing in Datacenter Clouds: overview, issues, and directions

 


Presenter

Dr. Rajiv Ranjan
Senior Research Scientist & Julius Fellow
CSIRO
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr. Prem Jayaraman
CSIRO

 

 

Abstract

Today we live in a ‘Digital Universe’ where information and technology are not only around us, but play important roles in dictating the quality of our lives. As we delve deeper into the ‘Digital Universe’, we are witnessing explosive growth in the variety, velocity, and volume of data being transmitted over the Internet.  A Zeta byte of data passed through the Internet in the past year; IDC predicts that his digital universe is set to explore to an unimaginable 8 Zeta bytes by the year 2015. These data are and will be generated mainly from internet search, social media, mobile devices, Internet of Things, business transactions, next generation radio astronomy telescopes, high energy physics synchrotron and content distribution. Today government and business organizations are overflowing with data, easily aggregating to terabytes or even petabytes of information.

 

The examples above demonstrate the rise of big data applications where data has grown unrestrainedly and is beyond the ability of conventionally used data processing technologies to process within a “tolerable elapsed time”. The data sets generated by these applications do not fit into the data processing models of traditional relational databases (e.g., Oracle, MySQL, and DB2) and data mining (e.g., Microsoft Excel, MATLAB, and R) frameworks. Relational databases operate on archived data in response to queries such as commit a credit card transaction (e.g., e-commerce). That is, these data processing technologies are designed to maintain efficient and fault-tolerant collection of data that is accessed and aggregated only when a query or transaction request is issued by a user (i.e. the data needs to be archived prior to processing).

 

To process data as they arrive, there has been a paradigm change from the conventional “one-shot” data processing approach to elastic and virtualised Datacentre Cloud-based data processing frameworks that are able to mine continuous, high-volume, open-ended data streams. To this end, the tutorial intends to provide: (i) in-depth analysis of most recent and influential research related to cloud computing and big data technologies and (ii) highlights important future research directions in the space.

 

Biography

Dr Rajiv Ranjan is a Senior Research Scientist and Julius in CSIRO's Digital Productivity and Services Flagship, where he is working on projects related to cloud and big data computing. He has been conducting leading research in the area of cloud and big data computing developing techniques for:  (i) QoS-based management and processing of multimedia and big data analytics applications across multiple cloud datacentres (e.g., CSIRO Cloud, Amazon and GoGrid); and (ii) automated decision support for migrating applications to datacentres.

 

Rajiv has developed a strong publication record which includes 41 journal articles, 32 conference papers, 9 book chapters, and 7 books/edited proceedings. Rajiv has 2650+ lifetime citations and h-index of 24 according to Google Scholar citations. Overall, about 70% of his journal papers and 50% of conference papers are A*/A ranked publication, according to the ERA. Rajiv also has 250+ ISI citations with an h-index of 8.

 

His papers have appeared at selective, highly reputed venues including IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ERA A*, ISI IF 1.4), Journal of Computer and System Sciences (ERA A*, ISI IF 1.0), World Wide Web Conference (CORE/ERA A*), IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (#1 Computer Science Journal 2011, ISI IF 6.311), Future Generation Computer Systems (ERA A, ISI IF 1.9), Journal of Software Practice and Experience (ERA A, ISI IF 1.05), Journal of Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience (ERA A, ISI IF 0.84), Journal of Computer Networks (ERA A, ISI IF 1.23), Journal of Supercomputing (ERA B. ISI IF 0.91).

 

Rajiv serves on the editorial board of Future Generation Computer Systems journal (ERA A Ranked, 5 Year Impact Factor: 2.003) and IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing. He has been invited to serve as the guest editor for leading international (ERA A*/A) journals namely IEEE TCC, FGCS, SPE, CCPE, Springer computing, and The Computer journals.

 

Dr. Prem Prakash Jayaraman is a Post Doctoral Research Fellow in Internet of Things (IoT) and Big Data science areas at CSIRO. His current projects are in the areas of semantic data management in IoT (broadly data management from multiple heterogeneous sources), development of mobile middleware platforms for distributed data analytics and cloud provisioning for big data analytics application. In the past few years, Dr. Jayaraman has contributed significantly to the design and development of middleware frameworks that can work in the cloud and on edge devices such as mobile devices enabling distributing load-balanced real-time data analytics between cloud and edge devices.

Dr. Jayaraman’s research has resulted in authoring/co-authoring 29 publications (4 Journals, 20 conference papers and 5 book chapters) in high impact journals and IEEE/ACM conferences. He has won awards at international conferences most notably he received the Semantic Interoperability Challenge Award at the Hackathon event during the IoT Week in London, June 2014. This event had 30 participants from over 10 countries developing IoT solutions. The EU OpenIoT project (http://www.openiot.eu/) he is currently working was awarded the “Open source Rookie of the Year 2013” by black duck software (a prestigious award recognizing the top 10 open sources projects from thousands of open-source projects). One of his paper titled “Intelligent Processing of K-Nearest Neighbours Queries using Mobile Data Collectors in a Location Aware 3D Wireless Sensor Network“ was awarded the best paper at Twenty Third International Conference on Industrial, Engineering & Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems (IEA-AIE 2010).

 


T1: NanoWSN Tutorial

Title

Nano-scale Wireless Sensor Networks: Opportunities, Challenges, and Recent Advances

 

Presenter

Prof. Mahbub Hassan
Professor and IEEE Distinguished Lecturer
School of Computer Science and Engineering
The University of New South Wales
Sydney 2052, Australia
Tel:+61-2-9385 6198, Fax: +61-2-9385 5995
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Abstrace

Thanks to advances in nanotechnology, production of sensors in nano-scale is getting within reach. Unique properties of nanomaterials used for manufacturing these nanosensors allow new types of events to be sensed at the atomic level. Nanotechnology has also dramatically increased the efficiency of power generation and consumption as well as storage and processing of information at the nanoscale, making it feasible to build fully-fledged nanosensor nodes or nanomotes. Because of their ability to work at the atomic level, nano-scale wireless sensor networks (NWSNs) promise new opportunities to observe nature from the very bottom, which cannot be realized with conventional micro- or macroscale sensor networks. For example, an NWSN consisting of millions of nano-scale chemical sensors could be deployed within the human body to detect the onset of cancer at a very early stage. Similarly, an NWSN inside a chemical reactor could collect ultra-high-resolution data about the evolution of chemical processes providing an unprecedented opportunity to observe processes reaction-by-reaction at the molecular level, which is far beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging techniques. Early predictions suggest that such nano-scale monitoring will pave the way for a totally new type of process controls boosting industrial productivity to a new level. Wireless communication and networking at the nano-scale, however, faces new challenges not encountered in conventional sensor networks. Ultra-small antennae call for extremely high frequency communication, which not only consumes higher energy, but also experiences high path loss in many target operating environments. At these frequencies, chemical composition of the channel significantly influences the propagation characteristics, making reliable communication very challenging when composition varies rapidly, e.g., due to continuous chemical reactions within a reactor. At nano-scale, sensor nodes can only accomplish some absolutely basic computation tasks, rendering many conventional protocols useless. Over the last few years, many researchers have studied the unique issues expected in nano-scale sensor networks and attempted to provide new concepts and solutions to deal with them. Despite these previous studies, research in nano-scale wireless sensor networking is still considered at a very early stage. The objective of this tutorial is to present the opportunities, challenges, and a survey of recent advancements of this new and growing research field. The tutorial is comprised of five modules:

  • Module 1: Potential applications of NWSN (with significant details of two applications, one in health and one in chemical engineering domain)
  • Module 2: Nano-sensor device characteristics including energy production (scavenging or harvesting) and consumption models
  • Module 3: Wireless communication challenges for NWSN (with significant details of new propagation and path loss models and the publicly available tools and databases to derive exact path loss for different environments with different atomic composition)
  • Module 4: Survey of recent advances in NWSN research (Summary and taxonomy of 50+ papers published in this area in the last five years)
  • Module 5: Research opportunities for NWSN (highlighting many interesting and significant future works in nanosensor networks)

 

Potential Participants

  • Researchers working in the broad area of sensor networking
  • Researchers wanting to learn more about nano-scale wireless networking
  • Researchers working in nanotechnology (from many different fields of science and engineering,as well as medicine and bio-medical)

 

Biography

Mahbub Hassan is a Full Professor in the School of Computer Science and Engineering, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. He is a Distinguished Lecturer of IEEE (COMSOC) for 2013 and 2014. He was a Keynote Speaker for ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (2011) and IEEE International Worskshop on Vehicular Networking (2009). He worked as Visiting Professor at Osaka University, Japan (2011), University of Nantes, France (2005) and National ICT Australia (2004). He was a tutorial speaker at IEEE ICC 2012 and IEEE VTC 2011. He is currently an Editor of IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorial and has previously served as Guest Editor for IEEE Network and Associate Technical Editor for IEEE Communications Magazine. He has attracted research grants from both government and industry. He has co-authored three books, one US patent, and over 100 refereed articles. Professor Hassan has earned a PhD from Monash University, Australia, and an MSc from University of Victoria, Canada, both in Computer Science. More information about Professor Hassan is available from http://www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~mahbub. In recent years, he has been working on developing efficient communication protocols for nano-scale sensor networks, which have been published in the following papers:

 

[1] E. Zarepour, A. A. Adesina, M. Hassan, and C. T. Chou, “An innovative approach to improving gas-to-liquid fuels catalysis via nanosensor network modulation,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, In press, March 2014.

[2] E. Zarepour, M. Hassan, C. T. Chou, and A. A. Adesina, “Frequency Hopping Strategies for Improving Terahertz Sensor Network Performance over Composition Varying Channels,” accepted in IEEE WoWMoM 2014.

[3] E. Zarepour, M. Hassan, C. T. Chou, and A. A. Adesina, “Power Optimization in Nano Sensor Networks for Chemical Reactors,” accepted in the 1st ACM International Conference on Nano-scale Computing and Communication, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 2014.

[4] E. Zarepour, M. Hassan, C. T. Chou, and A. A. Adesina ,“Nano-scale Sensor Networks for Chemical Catalysis,” in Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE NANO), Beijing, China, August 5-8, 2013, pp.61–66.

[5] E. Zarepour, A. A. Adesina, M. Hassan, and C. T. Chou, “Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts,” in Chemeca 2013, Brisbane, 2013.

 


T4: VANET Tutorial

Title

Vehicular Networking Technologies, Standards, Applications, Challenges and Future Directions

 

Presenters

 Prof. Guoqiang Mao, PhD, SMIEEE
Professor of Wireless Networking,
Director, UTS Centre for Real-time Information Networks
School of Computing and Communications,
University of Technology, Sydney
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 Prof. Ren Ping Liu, PhD, SMIEEE
Principal Scientist, Networking Technology
CSIRO, Australia
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 

 

Abstract

We will give an overview of the state-of-the-art VANET technology, ranging from communications, networking and applications to security and privacy. We will also discuss challenges in the design of vehicular networking architectures and protocol suites, in particular, VANET MAC and PHY protocols, as well as their performance analysis with Markov chain, mobility, and channel models.

 

We will outline challenges and future research directions to enable large-scale, efficient and safe vehicular ad-hoc networks and applications.

 

The topics that we are going to present include:

·         ITS

·         VANET Applications and Requirements

·         VANET Standards:

o        DSRC

o        IEEE 1609 WAVE

o        IEEE 802.11p

o        3G/4G, or 5G

·         ITS project activities around the world

·         VANET architecture and protocol designs

o        Physical layer

o        MAC layer Markov analysis

o        Network layer routing and topology control

o        VANET security

·         VANET challenges and opportunities

 

Biography

Guoqiang Mao received PhD in telecommunications engineering in 2002 from Edith Cowan University. Between 2002 and 2013, he was a Lecturer, a Senior Lecturer and an Associate Professor at the School of Electrical and Information Engineering, the University of Sydney, all in tenured positions. He currently holds the position of Professor of Wireless Networking, Director of Center for Real-time Information Networks at the University of Technology, Sydney. He has published more than 100 papers in international conferences and journals, which have been cited more than 2000 times. His research interest includes intelligent transport systems, applied graph theory and its applications in networking, wireless multihop networks, wireless localization techniques and network performance analysis. He is a Senior Member of IEEE, an Editor of IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology and IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications and a co-chair of IEEE Intelligent Transport Systems Society Technical Committee on Communication Networks.

 

Ren Ping Liu received his B.E. and M.E. degrees from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Newcastle, Australia. He is a Principal Scientist of networking technology in CSIRO and an Adjunct Professor in Macquarie University. His research interests are Markov analysis and QoS design of wireless networks, including WLAN, LTE, WSN, VANET, and M2M.

 

Prof Liu is a Senior Member of IEEE. He served as TPC chair for WPMC2014; as OC co-chair for SenSys2007, ISCIT2012, ICUWB2013, BodyNets2014; as Proceeding Editor of ISCIT2012; and in TPC for IEEE WoWMoM2014, PIMRC’11,12,13,14, SmartGridComm’14, ICNC’14,15, ISWCS2014, WCNC2010, ISCIT2010,11,12,13, and HPCC2013. He is a regular reviewer for IEEE Transactions and other top journals in communication networks.

 


T5: Stream Tutorial

Title

Video Streaming and Quality Assessment

 

Presenter

Dr. Xiaohong Peng
School of Engineering & Applied Science
Aston University, Birmingham, B4
7ET, UK
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Abstract

Video streaming services that utilize TCP, such as YouTube, BBC's iPlayer, NetFlix and Ustream, are rapidly growing. Cisco has reported that Internet video traffic will account for 55 percent of all consumer Internet traffic by 2016, and that video traffic in mobile networks is rising at a 90% annual growth rate and will be the dominant traffic in the near future. These services normally require a playout buffer to deal with the problems caused by TCP's congestion control mechanisms. Due to network bandwidth scarcity and the demand for high definition quality video, buffer underrun can occur. This will result in a pause of a certain length before video playback can resume when sufficient data has been received in the buffer. Although TCP is designed to guarantee the reception of all packets to ensure the image quality, buffer underrun will cause impairments in video playout continuity which can affect the viewer’s perceived quality or quality of experience (QoE).

 

The QoE issue has become the main target to be addressed by service providers and network operators for mobile media delivery as in mobile networks rich media content is highly bandwidth consuming and the wireless link remains the main bottleneck. Developing proper quality metrics is currently one of the research focuses of video technologies and services. Especially, assessing the impairment in playout continuity is important for video streaming service providers to monitor the viewer’s quality of experience (QoE) for optimizing resource allocation and enhancing user satisfaction. This is particularly true in the case of HTTP/TCP based streaming, which is now the commonly used protocol for the vast majority of streamed media, as traditional metrics such as the peak signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) is unsuitable for quality measurement in this scenario.

 

In this tutorial, a full review of existing methodologies for quantifying the quality of video streaming is covered to provide the audience with knowledge ranging from traditional quality assessment technologies to the latest developments in addressing QoE in streaming services, including both theoretical and practical aspects. The structure of the tutorial is given as follows.

 

Video Streaming:

  • Streaming protocols
  • Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH)
  • Video streaming types
    • bQuality Assessment Metrics:
  • QoS vs QoE
  • Transmission impairments
  • Objective assessment metrics
  • Subjective assessment metrics
    • Pause Intensity (PI): This is a newly introduced metric for video streaming services which is closely correlated with user’s perceived quality and is an ideal measurement for QoE.
  • Buffer underrun characteristics
  • Continuity based quality assessment
  • PI models, simulation and subjective testing results
    • Applications of quality metrics in streaming service delivery
  • Applying PI to resource allocation (scheduling) in 3G and LTE networks
  • Applying PI to rate adaptation in DASH
  • Unified metrics accommodating both fidelity and continuity based quality measurements

 

Biography

I received the BEng and MSc degrees in Electrical Engineering from Southwest Jiaotong University, China, in 1982 and 1985, respectively. I obtained the PhD degree in digital communication systems at the University of Manchester in 1995. I am currently a Senior Lecturer in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Aston University, UK. I am a Senior Member of IEEE and the Member of the Editorial Board of IET Journal on Wireless Sensor Systems.

 

My research areas cover information theory and coding, wireless communications and networks, wireless sensor network, and video transmission in heterogeneous networks. I have led more than 10 research projects sponsored by research councils such as EPSRC, industries such as British Telecom, BlackBerry and Xyratex, and scientific organizations such as Royal Academy of Engineering, UK. I have published more than 100 papers in journals and international conferences.

 

Recently we have developed a new quality assessment metric, named ‘Pause Intensity’, for video streaming [1]. It has drawn attentions from research communities for multimedia technologies and mobile networks and it has been shown as an effective quality assessment metric which is closely correlated with subjective satisfactory levels of video service users [2]. Most importantly, this metric can play a central part in optimizing resource distribution schemes for mobile users with varied capabilities and demands [3].

 

[1] T. Porter, and X.-H. Peng, “An objective approach to measuring video playback quality in lossy networks using TCP,” IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 15 Issue 1, Jan. 2011, pp. 76-78.

[2] M. Seyedebrahimi, C. Bailey and X.-H. Peng, “Model and performance of a no-reference quality assessment metric for video streaming,” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 23, No. 12, Dec. 2013, pp. 2034-2043.

[3] M. Seyedebrahimi, X.-H. Peng and R. Harrison, “A quality driven framework for adaptive video streaming in mobile wireless networks,” in Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), April 2014.